Clean Eaters Warned About Risk Of Disorders – Sky News

Carrie Armstrong was recovering from an illness that had left her bed-bound.

With doctors warning her recovery would be slow, she turned to online health blogs and found what she thought was the healthy food holy grail: clean eating.

A new fad in food, clean eating promotes unprocessed and natural meals. It covers everything from gluten-free to raw food diets, and is praised by a legion of fans.

But Ms Armstrong became so obsessed with eating healthily, she became unhealthy.

“I went from eating everything to not just eating raw food, not just eating fruit, but eating just organic melon,” she said.

The uses for the scanners are 'endless', including instant nutritional data

A diet of melon alone, unsurprisingly, took its toll. Ms Armstrong’s hair started to fall out and her weight plummeted to 6st (38kg).

“I was worse off than when I started,” she said.

“I was mentally shattered and terrified by food. My life had become consumed by the food I consume.”

Experts are calling her experience “orthorexia”, an unclassified eating disorder identified by an extreme fixation on avoiding “unhealthy” foods.

They’re warning that the popularity of clean eating could lead to more cases, as extreme dieters become obsessed with controlling their food intake.

Even TV cook Nigella Lawson has spoken out about the trend – saying that clean eating could mask serious disorders.

But it is difficult to get away from the promotion of clean eating on health sites, blogs and social media.

On Instagram alone, there are more than 17 million posts when you search using the hashtag #cleaneating.

Fitness blogger Zanna Van Dijk has over 70,000 followers on the app.

Child measuring waist

She makes a living out of her healthy lifestyle, but worries about the example she could set for those who want to “eat clean”.

“Some people could use it to fuel negative behaviour, but I like to think that what I’m doing is going to support more positive behaviour,” she said.

“I do post my non-clean eating meals … and that’s a conscious effort to show people it’s OK not to be perfect.”

But many people following bloggers and fitness enthusiasts look at their recipes as if they’re nutritional advice.

Nutritionist Ian Marber warns that clean eating can often “cherry-pick science” and that people can end up “following fads and trends that have no background or basis to them whatsoever”.

Clean eaters are undeterred, and a community has grown around their “healthy” outlook.

For the majority, clean eating promotes a happy, healthy relationship with food, but there is a minority which take it too far.

The advice, as ever, is about balance – as much in people’s minds as on their plates.

From poop to power: Colorado explores new sources of renewable energy – 89.3 KPCC

The wastewater treatment plant in Grand Junction, Colo., takes in 8 million gallons of raw sewage — what’s flushed down the toilet and sinks.

Processing this sewage produces a lot of methane, which the plant used to just burn off into the air.

The process was “not good for the environment and a waste of a wonderful resource,” says Dan Tonello, manager of the Persigo Wastewater Treatment Plant.

Now, using more infrastructure, the facility refines the methane further to produce natural gas chemically identical to what’s drilled from underground.

Grand Junction has been replacing an aging fleet of garbage trucks and buses with natural gas vehicles, fueled mostly by the human-sourced gas from the treatment plant.

Tonello says Grand Junction is the first city in the nation to do that.

“We’re looking at hundreds of thousands of dollars a year being saved by implementing this process,” he says.

Europe has been extracting natural gas from organic waste for about a decade, and now it’s starting to pick up in the U.S.

Joanna Underwood, president of Energy Vision, a nonprofit dedicated to expanding the use of this renewable natural gas, or RNG, says Grand Junction is a model for small wastewater treatment plants around the country.

It’s cleaner than diesel fuel, and puts emissions that were heading for the atmosphere anyway to good use.

And there are other sources beyond human waste. Right now, for instance, food scraps are being collected from restaurant, grocery stores and large food manufacturers all over Colorado’s densely populated front range.

In a few weeks, the collected waste will be shipped to northern Colorado, where the Heartland Biogas facility is in its final stages of construction.

It’s much bigger than the Grand Junction treatment plant, one of the largest in North America, according to Bob Yost, whose company A1 Organics is partnering with the facility to coordinate the delivery of all that food.

Yost estimates there could be 25 to 30 semi loads of food waste coming in per day, which is then mixed with manure from a local dairy farm.

The best way to get the most natural gas from waste, according to Yost, is for a facility to have a balanced diet of both food scraps and manure.

The RNG is then delivered by the same pipelines used to deliver fossil fuel natural gas.

If all the organic waste in the country were gathered, current technologies could produce enough natural gas to replace about half of the diesel fuel used in U.S. transportation, says Energy Vision’s Underwood.

“For this sector, which in and of itself is big, it’s not a small piece,” she says.

It’s not a replacement for the traditional oil and gas industry by a longshot. But, as Underwood argues, practical solutions to climate change have to be assembled piece by piece.

This story was reported with Inside Energy, a public media collaboration focusing on America’s energy issues.

Copyright 2016 KUNC-FM. To see more, visit KUNC-FM.

 

DNA sheds light on Irish origins – BBC News

Uragh stone circle, County KerryImage copyright
Thinkstock

Scientists have sequenced the first ancient human genomes from Ireland – shedding light on the genesis of Celtic populations.

A genome is the instruction booklet for building and maintaining a human – comprising three billion DNA letters.

The work shows that early Irish farmers were similar to southern Europeans.

Genetic patterns then changed dramatically in the Bronze Age – as newcomers from the eastern periphery of Europe settled in the Atlantic region.

Details of the work, by geneticists from Trinity College Dublin and archaeologists from Queen’s University Belfast are published in the journal PNAS.

Team members sequenced the genomes of a 5,200-year-old female farmer from the Neolithic period and three 4,000-year-old males from the Bronze Age.

Opinion has been divided on whether the great transitions in the British Isles, from a hunting lifestyle to one based on agriculture and later from stone to metal use, were due to local adoption of new ways by indigenous people or attributable to large-scale population movements.

The ancient Irish genomes show unequivocal evidence for mass migration in both cases.

Wave of change

DNA analysis of the Neolithic woman from Ballynahatty, near Belfast, reveals that she was most similar to modern people from Spain and Sardinia. But her ancestors ultimately came to Europe from the Middle East, where agriculture was invented.

The males from Rathlin Island, who lived not long after metallurgy was introduced, showed a different pattern to the Neolithic woman. A third of their ancestry came from ancient sources in the Pontic Steppe – a region now spread across Russia and Ukraine.

“There was a great wave of genome change that swept into [Bronze Age] Europe from above the Black Sea… we now know it washed all the way to the shores of its most westerly island,” said geneticist Dan Bradley, from Trinity College Dublin, who led the study.

Image copyright
Daniel Bradley, Trinity College Dublin

Image caption

Excavated near Belfast in 1855, the Ballynahatty woman lay in a Neolithic tomb chamber for 5,000 years

Prof Bradley added: “This degree of genetic change invites the possibility of other associated changes, perhaps even the introduction of language ancestral to western Celtic tongues.”

In contrast to the Neolithic woman, the Rathlin group showed a close genetic affinity with the modern Irish, Scottish and Welsh.

“Our finding is that there is some haplotypic [a set of linked DNA variants] continuity between our 4,000 year old genomes and the present Celtic populations, which is not shown strongly by the English,” Prof Bradley told BBC News.

“It is clear that the Anglo-Saxons (and other influences) have diluted this affinity.”

Image copyright
Barrie Hartwell

Image caption

A reconstruction of the Ballynahatty Neolithic skull

Today, Ireland has the world’s highest frequencies of genetic variants that code for lactase persistence – the ability to drink milk into adulthood – and certain genetic diseases, including one of excessive iron retention called haemochromatosis.

One of the Rathlin men carried the common Irish haemochromatosis mutation, showing that it was established by the Bronze Age. Intriguingly, the Ballynahatty woman carried a different variant which is also associated with an increased risk of the disorder.

Both mutations may have originally spread because they gave carriers some advantage, such as tolerance of an iron-poor diet.

The same Bronze Age male carried a mutation that would have allowed him to drink raw milk in adulthood, while the Ballynahatty woman lacked this variant. This is consistent with data from elsewhere in Europe showing a relatively late spread of milk tolerance genes.

Prof Bradley explained that the Rathlin individuals were not identical to modern populations, adding that further work was required to understand how regional diversity came about in Celtic groups.

“Our snapshot of the past occurs early, around the time of establishment of these regional populations, before much of the divergence takes place,” he explained.

“I think that the data do show that the Bronze Age was a major event in establishment of the insular Celtic genomes but we cannot rule out subsequent (presumably less important) population events contributing until we sample later genomes also.”

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Sorry, you can't have fries with that: Here are 10 foods that may disappear … – Raw Story

Climate change is making the world a different place. There are more floods, droughts, wildfires, heat waves and other extreme weather events. Animal species around the world are either shifting habitat locations or simply dying off. Even humans are migrating due to a warmer world.

But there is one effect that will hit many of us right in the gut: Certain foods could disappear thanks to our changing climate. Brace yourself: here are 10 foods you’ll probably be sad to see go.

(image: Foodio/Shutterstock)

1. Guacamole

Around 8 million pounds of guacamole are consumed during the Super Bowl, but football fans might soon have to find something else to dip their tortilla chips into. Scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory predict as much as a 40 percent decrease in avocado production over the next 30 years due to increasing temperatures brought on by climate change.

As a result, the fast food chain Chipotle, which goes through 97,000 pounds of avocados a day — 35 million pounds every year — has warned that if climate change worsens, it may be forced to stop serving guacamole. The company says it “may choose to temporarily suspend serving menu items, such as guacamole or one or more of our salsas, rather than paying the increased cost for the ingredients.”

(image: Africa Studio/Shutterstock)

2. Apples

“Even if I knew that tomorrow the world would go to pieces,” the German theologian Martin Luther said, “I would still plant my apple tree.” He didn’t figure that there might be a tomorrow in which apple trees can’t properly grow. In 2011, an international team of scientists published a study which found just that: Temperate fruit and nut trees like the apple tree, which need a certain period of winter chill to produce economically practical yields, could be affected by global warming as winter temperatures rise. They said farmers should prepare for a warmer future by breeding cultivars with lower chilling requirements.

Such apples will likely taste different from the ones we have today, according to a Japanese study which found that rising temperatures are causing apple trees to bear fruit sooner, making them softer and sweeter. “If you could eat an average apple harvested 30 years before and an average apple harvested recently at the same time, you would really taste the difference,” said Toshihiko Sugiura of the National Agriculture and Food Research Organization in Tsukuba, Japan, the study’s lead author.

(image: Brent Hofacker/Shutterstock)

3. Beer

It’s sad, but true. Beer is already a victim of a changing climate, with brewers increasingly finding it more difficult to secure stable water supplies. According to a 2010 report commissioned by the National Resources Defense Council, about a third of counties in the United States “will face higher risks of water shortages by mid-century as the result of global warming.” Between 2030 and 2050, the difficulty in accessing freshwater is “anticipated to be significant in the major agricultural and urban areas throughout the nation.”

Some specialty hops used by craft brewers have already become harder to source, since warming winters are producing earlier and smaller yields. “This is not a problem that’s going to happen someday,” said Jenn Orgolini of Colorado’s New Belgium Brewery. “If you drink beer now, the issue of climate change is impacting you right now.” She said that in 2011, the hops her brewery normally uses weren’t available due to Pacific Northwest weather conditions.

(image: Mi.Ti./Shutterstock)

4. Rice and Beans

The late comedian/philosopher Bill Hicks once said, “The American dream is a crock. Stop wanting everything. Everyone should wear jeans and have three T-shirts, eat rice and beans.” He didn’t live long enough to find out that climate change could threaten the ability to follow his wise suggestion. It’s hard to overstate the importance of rice to world. It is a food staple for almost half of the world’s population. But climate change could significantly impact rice yields in this century.

According to a 2005 report by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, “temperature increases, rising seas and changes in rainfall patterns and distribution expected as a result of global climate change could lead to substantial modifications in land and water resources for rice production as well as in the productivity of rice crops grown in different parts of the world.” A 2005 report by the United States Department of Agriculture found that the viability of rice-growing land in tropical areas could decline by more than 50 percent during the next century.

Beans feed the majority of the human population in Latin America and much of Africa and are a part of the daily diet of more than 400 million people across the developing world. But beans may also experience declines due to a warming world. According to a report the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), higher temperatures could reduce bean yields by as much as 25 percent. “Beans are highly sensitive to heat, and the varieties that farmers currently grow do not yield well under night temperatures over 18 or 19 degrees Centigrade,” writes Nathan Russell of CIAT. “Higher temperatures drastically reduce seed fertility, leading to lower grain yields and quality.” Thankfully, CIAT scientists have identified about 30 “elite” bean lines that have demonstrated tolerance to temperatures 4°C higher than the crop’s normal “comfort zone.”

(image: Kayo/Shutterstock)

5. Seafood

One of the most dramatic effects of climate change is ocean acidification, a decrease in the pH, or the hydrogen ion concentration, of the Earth’s oceans, making the water more acidic. This is caused by the ocean absorbing more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere — carbon we are spewing by burning fossil fuel and mowing down forests. This decrease in pH makes it harder for organisms like corals, crustaceans like lobsters, crabs and shrimp, and molluscs like clams, oysters, snails, mussels and scallops to form the calcium-based shells and exoskeletons they need to survive. Scientists at the Ocean Acidification Research Center of the University of Alaska Fairbanks have warned that shellfish farmers off the Alaska coast may need to start modifying the sea water in their hatcheries as they expect “significant effects” from acidification by 2040.

Scientists also believe that pink salmon, the most abundant of the Pacific salmon species, will be one of the primary victims of climate change, since the fish cannot survive the increasingly acidic waters. In a recent study, scientists at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver and MacEwan University in Edmonton reared pink salmon in the lab under water acidity levels expected at the end of this century. They found that when the fish reached the age at which they would migrate to the sea, their ability to use oxygen in their muscles was significantly decreased. This means their future wild brethren will face difficulties locating food and evading predators.

Ocean acidification isn’t the only climate-related threat to fish. According to a study conducted by a team of Australian scientists, higher temperatures will increase the toxicity of common pesticides and industrial contaminants such as endosulfan, an insecticide, and phenol, an organic compound used to produce plastics and a variety of pharmaceuticals, which threatens the survival of a wide array of freshwater species such as trout, perch and carp.

(image: avs/Shutterstock.com)

6. Chocolate

“Everywhere in the world there are tensions — economic, political, religious,” said French chef Alain Ducasse in a 2013 interview with the Wall Street Journal. “So we need chocolate.” Who among us can disagree? An estimated one billion people around the world eat chocolate every day. The average American consumes 12 pounds of the sweet stuff every year. But the topography of Ghana, Ivory Coast, and Côte d’Ivoire, where more than half of the world’s chocolate is sourced in the form of the cocoa bean, will be so different by 2050 that production will be seriously impacted.

The current optimum altitude for cocoa production is 100 to 250 meters above sea level (MASL). But according to a worrisome 2011 CIAT study, that figure will increase to between 450 and 500 MASL by 2050. The report’s authors warn that farmers might begin to see declines in cocoa production by 2030. Beyond impacting our chocolate consumption is the effect that this will have on cocoa farmers, many of whom rely on cocoa for their livelihoods. “Many of these farmers use their cocoa trees like ATM machines,” said Dr. Peter Laderach, the report’s lead author. “They pick some pods and sell them to quickly raise cash for school fees or medical expenses. The trees play an absolutely critical role in rural life.”

(image: menic181/Shutterstock.com)

7. Coffee

Coffee is ubiquitous. Around 8.5 million metric tons of coffee are grown in 60 countries on nearly every continent. Half a trillion tons of java are consumed every year. But people around the globe may have to find another stimulating beverage to start their day. In recent years, a deadly plant fungus called coffee rust has swept across Central America, cutting coffee production and seriously impacting local economies. Experts believe that the spread of the disease has been driven by higher temperatures brought on by climate change.

Coffee plantations around the world are dealing with increased incidences of fungi and invasive species due to higher temperatures. Coffee bean farms on the Kona coast of the Big Island in Hawaii are being ravaged by an insect called the coffee berry borer, which scientists say is “expected to become an even greater threat” due to climate change. And in Africa, scientists predict that the number of coffee-growing regions will decrease between 65 to 100 percent as the surface temperature increases. Actor Jim Carrey once said, “I wake up some mornings and sit and have my coffee and look out at my beautiful garden, and I go, ‘Remember how good this is. Because you can lose it.’” He probably wasn’t referring to climate change, but he might as well have been.

(image: inewsfoto/Shutterstock.com)

8. Peanut Butter

Billy Joel once quipped, “A peanut butter and jelly sandwich is better than bad sex.” Indeed, there are few things as immediately satisfying as a good PB&J. If you grew up in the U.S., you probably ate your share as a kid. But this simple and classic sammy could become a museum piece with climate change on track to push a number of wild relatives of plants, including the peanut, to extinction, according to a 2007 study.

Andy Jarvis, an agricultural geographer who led the study, said that flora like the peanut are more threatened by global warming since they grow mainly in flat areas; farmers would need to migrate significant distances to find cooler climates and that is not always possible. He points out the importance of maintaining seed banks to guard against the effects of climate change. “There is an urgent need to collect and store the seeds of wild relatives in crop diversity collections before they disappear,” he said. His call to action could be summed up neatly: Save the PB&J!

(image: Markus Mainka/Shutterstock.com)

9. Wine

If we don’t keep the increase of the global surface temperature to a maximum of 2°C (some say 1.5°C) to prevent the worst impacts of climate change, fermented grape juice from traditional winemaking regions could one day become a thing of the past. Grapevines are extremely sensitive to their surrounding environment: The variation in yield from season to season is more than 32 percent. And with temperatures steadily increasing, viniculture around the world is changing. Changes are already afoot in France, one of the largest wine producers in the world.

“Extreme weather is becoming more common in all of France’s wine-growing regions,” writes Ullrich Fichtner in Der Spiegel. “Heavy rains and hailstorms frequently come on the heels of summer heat waves and dry periods. Winters and nighttime temperatures are so mild that the plants are never able to rest. Few winegrowers continue to deny these tangible phenomena.” The famous wine appellation Châteauneuf-du-Pape is a striking example. As temperatures rise in the southern Rhône region, the harvest dates for this heavy wine have moved from October to early September. Philippe Guigal, one of the leading winemakers in the Rhône Valley, said that in the area where Châteauneuf-du-Pape grapes are grown, “the problems are getting really serious.”

But as climate change disrupts traditional winemaking regions worldwide, it will also create new ones, like Montana and China.

(image: Brent Hofacker/Shutterstock)

10. French Fries

Who doesn’t like french fries? Scratch that. Who doesn’t love french fries? But we may need to think about a different side to go with basically everything. In January, Vice News published a story with a very disturbing headline: “Climate Change Might Be the Greatest Threat to Potato Cultivation in 8,000 Years.” In Peru, home to thousands of potato species as well as the International Potato Center (CIP), based in Lima, potato farmers are being forced to move to higher altitudes due to rising surface temperatures. But even the Andes don’t rise forever. “I estimate that in 40 years there will be nowhere left to plant potatoes [in Peru’s highlands],” said Rene Gómez, curator of the CIP germplasm bank.

Of course, french fries aren’t the only thing the potato has given to the world. We could also lose such starchy staples as potato chips, baked potatoes, mashed potatoes, potato salad, home fries and hash browns. Many cultures across the globe would lose popular potato-based regional dishes, such as aloo gobi (India), boxty (Ireland), cottage pie (United Kingdom), gamjajeon (South Korea), gnocchi (Italy), gratin (France), knishes (Eastern Europe), patatas bravas (Spain), kroppkaka (Sweden) and massaman curry (Thailand), to name a few. In terms of human consumption, the potato is the world’s third most important food crop after rice and wheat. More than a billion people worldwide eat potato, and global total potato production exceeds 300 million metric tons.

Food may be one of the most apparent and immediate ways many of us will feel the impact of climate change. “The general story is that agriculture is sensitive,” said David Lobell, deputy director of the Center on Food Security and the Environment at Stanford University. “It’s not the end of the world, but it will be a big enough deal to be worth our concern.”

We certainly don’t need another reason to fight climate change. But a good one would be to save some of our favorite — and the world’s most important — foods from extinction.

Leonardo DiCaprio is Being Called a 'Legend' for Raw Food He Tore Into in 'The … – IJ Review

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Leonardo DiCaprio and director Alejandro G. Iñárritu’s upcoming film “The Revenant” is sure to turn some heads with its gruesome, brutal, and incredible interpretation of the life of legendary explorer Hugh Glass.

According to legend, Glass was mauled by a grizzly bear in 1823 but managed to crawl 200 miles to exact revenge on the men who left him for dead.

Critics and fans alike are saying that this could be DiCaprio’s chance to finally win an Oscar his performance on screen, especially due to the grueling conditions of the shoot.

Screen Shot 2015-12-24 at 11.33.14 AM

Image Credit: YouTube Screenshot

Here are a few of the extreme things DiCaprio did for this movie, according to an interview with Variety:

  • Live with a massive beard for over a year,
  • Travel to remote locations for shoots.
  • Risk getting hypothermia regularly,
  • Work through illness,
  • And be covered in ants.

But perhaps the worst stunt (or normal life experience for some midwesterners) was eating a raw bison liver.

Image Credit: YouTube Screenshot

Image Credit: YouTube Screenshot

The 41-year-old actor was concerned about how authentic a fake liver would look, so he opted to take a bite out of a real one. He explained the deed to Variety:

“The bad part is the membrane around it. It’s like a balloon. When you bite into it, it bursts in your mouth.”

Gross.

Will this be DiCaprio’s crowning achievement?