Eating to Avoid Breast Cancer

Breast cancers tend to be seen as a completely feminine affair but the truth is, men too are at risk, albeit very rarely, of developing breast cancer. Continued medical advances several things are still not clear about breast cancer and in most sufferers of this disease, a clear cause can still not be shown to be responsible for the disease.

Breast cancer is not hereditary, although a family history of breast cancer increases the risk. Certain other factors linked with developing breast cancer include; the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer is increased by overweight, the use of hormone replacement (HRT) increases the risk, having the last menstrual cycle from the early 50's and older increases the risk, having the first menstrual cycle at a later age and being pregnant at an early age lowers the risk. Although most breast cancers are hormonally related other factors may affect the risk, such as stress, carcinogens, use of stimulants, exposure to pesticides and oral contraceptive.

In its early stages, breast cancer does not show any sign and when it does the first sign is usually a spontaneous lump that is found in the breast. When breast cancer becomes more advanced and spreads to other parts of the body then the symptoms could be more obvious depending on the part of the body affected. The symptoms could range from neurological problems, bone pain, weight loss, fatigue and anemia.

Along with traditional medicine, changing the diet and one's lifestyle can help with breast cancer. Keeping to a vegetarian style diet by reducing animal fats in the diet; eating very little meat and cutting down on dairy products, will help. Only eating organic vegetables and meat (this will reduce the exposure of pesticides and hormones), consuming lots of tomatoes as these are high in lycopene which can inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells, consuming plenty of olive oil, increasing fiber in the diet, reducing the exposure of soft, fatty or acid foods to soft plastics; not using cling film, buying food that comes in paper, glass or ceramic containers or if food is supplied in a plastic container then removing and storing in a glass or ceramic container in the fridge. Cutting out stimulants such as caffeine, sugar and alcohol, changing one's lifestyle to minimize stress, possibly taking up yoga and meditation, increasing exercise, cutting out smoking and increasing the consumption of the essential oils Omega 3 and Omega 6 which are found in oily fish , seeds, evening primrose oil, borage oil and flax oil.

Some food materials are known to be anti cancer in action. Increasing the amount of such food in your daily diet period could go along way to preventing cancer. Such foods include sweet potatoes, carrots, watercress, peas, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts, spinach, onions, leeks, garlic, soy products, lemons, mangoes, melon, peppers, pumpkin, strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, elderberries, pears, shiitake mushrooms, tomatoes, cage, grapefruit, kiwi fruit, oranges, seeds, nuts, squash, tuna, mackerel, salmon, wheat or rice bran, oats, wild rice, rye, apricot, walnuts, beans and the herbs and spices – rosemary, thyme, oregano and turmeric. These vegetables and fruits should be eaten raw and as fresh as possible or lightly steamed so that no good is lost. Soybeans and products are extremely good in reducing tumor growth and inducing cancer cells to revert to normal. Soybeans have genistein in them, which is an angiostat (anti-growth compound that advances cancer from growing by preventing the formation of new blood vessels that aid cancer cells to grow).

There are so many factors linked to breast cancer that are beyond our control. Factors like exposure to radiation and chemicals, caused by environmental pollution, a family history of breast cancer and a couple of other factors are outside our reach. It makes real sense therefore, to play the little part we can in the prevention of this dreaded disease.

What You Need To Know To Raise A Healthy, Happy Cat

Caring for a little life is a big responsibility and one that should never be taken lightly. Our cat depends on us to make sure all its needs are met for its entire life. And that could be quite some time! There are of course, some basics of care that you may already know and there may be a few that just might surprise you.

Let's begin with the most obvious cat care needs – Feeding

Our common house cat was domesticated over 3600 years ago, but did you know that its digestive system has remained unchanged from its wild cousins? That means, your furry family member should be eating a diet that consists of meat. Raw meat at that. Their digestive enzymes and stomach acids are specifically designed to break down raw meats and even soften bone, in order to assimilate the nutrients. You do not ever see a wild lion with a fry pan or nibbling on dry kibble do you? The healthiest meals for your kitty are raw. You can find pre-made raw meals in pet health food stores, they can be ordered online or you can make them yourself with a little help from a good, natural kitty care book.

For a variety of reasons, some people are unable to feed their cats a raw diet, so it is vitally important to choose the healthiest bag or canned food available. Never purchase pet food from a supermarket! They only stock the cheapest and poorest quality 'food'. Shop at a pet store and read ingredients. The first 3 ingredients should be meat. And the food should not contain grains of any kind. Remember, cats are carnivores and thrive on a meat based diet. And of course, always have plenty of fresh, clean water available at all times.

Another important need for your cat is – Shelter

For the health and safety of your cat, it is of vital importance that they be kept indoors. The average life expectancy for a cat allowed to roam outside is 4 years, while an indoor cat will live around 15 years or more. What a difference! Outside, your cat will come in to contact with illness, disease from other animals, fleas and ticks, cars and predatory animals such as coyotes or neighborhood dogs. Keep them safe, keep them inside.

An absolute essential in having a healthy and happy cat is – Health Care

Health care consists of 2 main parts. Veterinary care and maintenance care.

You will need to take your kitty in for regular vet check up's and basics, such as having them spade or neutered, vaccinated, etc. And it is a good idea to have a budget for unforseen circumstances as well, such as your kitty getting sick or injured. I strongly recommend obtaining a quality pet health insurance policy. They are inexpensive (around $ 25 a month) and can cover most of the costs of unexpected accidents, that may run into the thousands of dollars.

Maintenance care includes essentials that need to be done regularly. Things like grooming costs, monthly flea and tick medicine, toys, scratching posts, catnip, the list can go on. Having a budget of at least $ 50 per month for these things is a safe estimate.

And one of the most important necessities for giving your cat a full and happy life is – Love

Although this may sound obvious, your cat needs more than a bowl of food and a pat on the head every now and then. They are living, feeling creatures that are totally dependent on you. They crave your attention, play time and love. Each cat will have their own personality and disposition. Some will be rather aloof, others will need constant attention 24/7. Finding one that fits your personality is very important.

Having a healthy and happy cat is easily achievable with a little advance preparation. The perfect places to begin the search for your new friend are your local Shelters and the human society. If you have a particular type of cat in mind, you can go to petfinder.com. You will be able to sort by age, size, color, breed, etc and find the perfect new family member for you.

It may seem like a bit of work at first, but when you've got the plan, you and your new kitty will live a long and happy life together.

The Positive Effects Of Diet Pills

Over time the obesity rates in various countries like America have continued to climb. The overall selection of diet pills and weight loss supplements has also climbed because of this. Burning fat while losing weight it absolutely possible without the use of these dieting options but there are so many advantages associated with these supplements to simply ignore them altogether.

Using these pills in conjunction with exercise and other methods can provide extremely explosive results for the average person. Inside most of these pills you will find stimulants which are very powerful when it comes to increasing your metabolic rate. There is a wide range of other ingredients found inside of your typical pill that can accelerate the fat burning process very efficiently.

The most powerful effect by far that these pills will have on your body is the appetite suppression. To achieve weight loss you need caloric restriction and this is what you will get with modern pills. The ingredients that can be found in your typical dieting pills have the power to suppress your appetite which will greatly increase the overall fat burning effect within your body.

By taking pills like this you will be able to keep all of your cravings under control while maintaining a healthy level of caloric intake. Most people underestimate the power of appetite restriction and this is bad since it is actually a very important factor when it comes to losing weight.

Aside from giving you the appetite suppression dieting pills can also provide a diuretic effect. This effect will basically help your body to get rid of the large amount of water that it is holding inside of it. Flushing a large amount of water from your body will only add to the overall amount of weight that you can lose from taking this type of pill.

Another powerful effect that you will find is known as reduced lipogenesis. The process that your body uses to generate new fat cells is called lipogenesis. Taking modern dieting pills can prevent this process from taking place. Make sure that you do your research on where to buy diet pills so you can make the best decisions.

This will prevent your body from creating an influx of new fat cells as you are trying to burn away the ones that you already have. You can even benefit from increased resting energy when you are taking these powerful supplements. The end result for most people that take dieting pills is a slimmer body and a reduced overall body weight.

Why Are Fermented Vegetables Good For You?

Fermented vegetables, also known as raw cultured vegetables, have been around since ancient times and across all cultures. The fermentation process was originally done to preserve foods as the process enabled foods to be kept for months without spoiling. Specifically, its where foods are either left whole or chopped and left to sit in their natural juices, which are drawn out then used to preserve the food.

In ancient times, fermented foods were considered quite the staple food source, so very instrumental in getting the masses through the long winter months. Today, we know and appreciate more of the nutritional benefits of fermented foods. For starters, they promote digestive health. Their acid kills harmful bacteria and pathogens, removes toxins and anti-nutritional compounds and produces antibiotics, which improves immunity and overall health. Moreover, the new cultures that are created from the fermentation process create folic acid, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin and biotin, which are all part of the Vitamin B complex. B Vitamins promote healthy skin, increase metabolism, reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer, help the body make hormones and enhance immunity among other things. So as you can see fermented vegetables have an abundance of benefits to us.

Now, if you're not too familiar with what fermented vegetables are exactly some well-known examples are pickles, salsa, soy sauce, sauerkraut, sour cream, sourdough bread, water kefir and more. On the other hand, if you know of yet just are not too keen on eating fermented foods, but still want to reap the benefits there are a variety of ways to eat them. For instance, sprinkling some sauerkraut on your salad or eating some with crackers will make a tasty snack or meal. Then, if you're a bread lover you could trade white bread for some sourdough. You could even add some fermented fruit to a nice, cold smoothie. Meanwhile, there are even some healthy fermented beverages that you can enjoy such as kefir, which can be found at your local health food store.

Fermented foods are a blessing to the world. They are a rich source of nutrients and for all the nutrients they pack they are reliably inexpensive whether you buy them fermented or do it yourself. Either way you look at it, you definitely get the bang for your buck and the nutritional benefit that you get is well worth your time and indulgence. Yet, from a broader perspective, fermented foods provide a means for feeding more of the worlds poor. So just as our ancestors realized the immense benefits of this food source so maybe we. There is much wisdom to be gained from ancient practices such as fermentation, which should not only be honored for what they did for us in the past, but more importantly for what they can and will do for us in the future as food security and the purity of our food is being enriched more and more each day.

Are There Any Diets That Are As Good As NutriSystem, But Are Cheaper?

Yesterday, I received an email from a women who told me that she liked many aspects of this diet, but she was trying to do better on the price. Specifically, she wanted to know "is there any diets that are as good as NutriSystem with as many good food choices that are cheaper or cost less?" I'll tell you how I responded to this question in the following article.

Diets Comparable To NutriSystem: Many people do not realize it, but NutriSystem combines a lot of the attributes of many popular diets. It's low in calories (like weight watchers.) It's low in carbs (like Atkins and South Beach.) It's high in protein and fiber (like the Mediterranean.) So, while you could compare this diet to many others, very few have all of these attributes at once and very few offer so many food choices. (There are over 170 food choices with a lot of snacks and comfort foods.) For example, you get a low amount of carbs on Atkins, but you have to eat meat and eggs all of the time and you're rarely allowed sweets and Cereals (which you get on this one.) You get a low amount of calories on weight watchers, but you have to count them and many of the foods have too much carbs or sugar to successfully put your body in ketosis (rapid fat burning mode .)

If you wanted a diet similar to this one, you'd have low calories, low carbs, high protein, high fiber, and healthy fresh foods. Now, you could educate yourself on how to prepare these foods, but you would have to plan for, buy, and then prepare the groceries. I actually doubt that this would cost you less than the prepackaged diet and it would be a lot more work. Let's take a closer look at this.

The True Cost Of NutriSystem: OK, if you're going for the basic women's plan (where you eat five times per day), the base price of this is around $ 300. But, there are always specials and coupons running. Usually, you'll either get 2 – 3 weeks for free or as much as $ 100 off (if you're willing to try auto ship.) This brings the cost down to about $ 8 or so per day. If you're figuring out the cost per meal, this is around $ 1.60 each, which is quite good, in my opinion.

Now, the new Flex Plan (where you take weekends off) is even cheaper than that – $ 100 cheaper to be exact. But, you're getting less food and you still have to cover your weekend meals. So, although there is a perception that this one works out to be cheaper, I believe that when you figure out the cost of groceries, you're really in the same ball park. However, many people like having two days off, which has nothing to do with cost. (And you can use the same coupons with this plan too.)

So, Is There Any Decent Alternative ?: I think the answer to this really depends on your criteria in what it considered "good." If you're willing to educate yourself and have the power and the drive to prepare your own meals and buy well in advance and in bulk, you may well be successful and save a bit of money. But, I truly believe that when you consider gas, groceries, and the cost of what your time is worth, NutriSystem is actually quite cost effective and convenient, but this is going to be individual for everyone. Not many diets let you eat chocolate cake and tacos for $ 1.60 or so per meal.

Putting Your Dog On A Diet for Weight Loss

Most dogs will begin to be less active and will self-exercise less as they age. Some breeds are naturally more likely to gain weight and be couch dogs rather than active pets, so it is important to help them eat only the food they need, not all that they want. Some dogs are naturally able to regulate their food where other dogs simply eat until they can not hold another bite. Understanding how your dog eats and how much they eat can help you determine how to best help them manage their weight or how to effectively help them lose weight.

To get your dog started on a lifestyle change and diet that is needed to help an already overweight dog start to get in shape consider the following:

· Cut out all snacks, trees and food items other than the actual dog food. This means no high carb or sugary trees, no extra little scraps from the table or even any dog ​​cookies. High quality treats can be reintroduced to the diet on a very limited amount once the weight has been lost.

· Without there is a reason why your dog must be on wet food switch to a high quality premium dry food only, but not necessarily a weight loss formula. Most dogs will lose weight even on regular kibble provided all the other aspects of the plan are followed. Ask your vet for recommendations for foods that would be beneficial to your particular dog. Switch the food slowly and gradually to avoid digestive problems. Do not worry if the dog refuses to eat the dry, especially if it is a picky eater, it will eat when it gets hungry. If the dog does not eat for two days and you are exercising the dog as outlined contact your vet before proceeding with the food selection.

· Increase exercise – and this involves your participation. Most dogs, especially those that are overweight, simply do not exercise themselves. Putting them outside in the yard for an extra hour does not count since they will likely take a leisurely stroll around the yard, find a comfortable spot and rest. You must make them keep moving. Take them on a leash for a walk around the block at least twice a day. Once they can do one block, increase to two and keep increasing the distance and the pace of the exercise. Start slow and gradually increase to avoid stressing both the dog and yourself!

· Increase play times. Try throwing a ball or a stick for the dog, or playing a game of tag or chase. Start slow, even just rolling the ball to get the dog involved. Lots of praise and attention during the game will help keep them motivated and engaged.

· Plan a regular "play date" for your dog with another dog if he or she is an only dog ​​in your house. Running and playing with another dog is great exercise and gives you a chance to supervise and relax.

· Cut down on the dog food by a quarter to start. If you are normally feeding 1 cup twice a day feed of of a cup twice a day. Never cut out a meal, simply cut down on each meal. It is recommended to feed two smaller meals rather than just one meal to keep blood sugar better regulated for the dog.

· Check your yard and house for hidden food items. Many dogs have learned to get into the garbage, get into cupboards and raid the treat boxes or even get into candy dishes left on the coffee table. Remove all sources of food from where the dog can access.

Keep on the plan for two weeks, decreasing each mean by one quarter and doubling a reasonable level of exercise. You should notice a slight weight loss in this period. You can either weigh the dog by using a standard bath scale or, for large breeds, simply use a measuring tape around the widest part of the body. If you have followed the plan and are decreasing food, increasing exercise and cutting out all trips and do not notice even a slight decrease in weight after two weeks see your veterinarian immediately to rule out any medical problems.

Diet Rules for Weight Control

Americans spend thirty billion dollars on weight loss aids and products annually. Despite this, long term weight loss remains elusive for the most number of people. Research reveals that only five to twenty percent of people were able to maintain permanent results. Two thirds regained lost weight after a year and the rest restored it with five years. How do these successful losers do it? Here are some rules they'd like to share with you.

There are five behaviors that have been identified to help you reach your weight management goals. These are eating breakfast, monitoring weight, limiting television, daily exercise and having a strong support network. You may notice that now can you find any statement of diet restriction. It simply shows that a positive lifestyle change not only promote good health but weight reduction as well.

A daily breakfast is in everyone's list of fat loss tips. Seventy eight percent of successful weight loss research participants eat breakfast everyday. Eating breakfast sets a positive tone for the remaining meals of the day. Hunger is a powerful biological need. Assuaging it first thing in the morning makes sure that you do not overeat later in the day. One more thing that you should do at least once a week is weigh yourself. Weighing yourself provides you with the means to evaluate your fat loss measures. Getting positive results inspire you to keep on reaching for your goals.

Sixty five percent of weight loss participants watched less than ten hours of television. This means more time for them to engage in activities that require them to move more and then, burn calories. Ninety percent of participants rely on exercise to maintain their weight. Do at least an hour of daily exercise. It increases the probability of maintaining their weight over the long term. The support of family and friends are essential if you want to stay slim and healthy. They cheer you on and provide you with much needed moral support.

Weight loss products and aids is big business. That proves that people would really like to lose weight. Eating breakfast, watching less television, weighing yourself and exercising are behavioral changes that support good health. Inevitably, they also promote weight loss. The significant people in your life should support your aspirations. You'll be able to count on them when you a little morale boost to keep you going.

Foods That Make You Grow Taller and Improve Height Growth

If you find yourself shorter in height than most other people around you, it is time for you to act promptly to eat a diet that is full of protein, calcium, calories, and amino acids. These ingredients in diet work to change your metabolism to engineer growth of your bones, muscle mass, and then improve height growth. If you are at an age where growth is ongoing but is at a slow pace, these elements in your regular food will speed up the assimilation of your flexible cartilage to stretch and turn into solid bones and in that process to increase your height. If these cartilages become hardened without gaining any length, your body loses the potential to gain further height. However, if you are past puberty and you are stuck at a height that is shorter than the normal height to which you could grow, you need the same kind of foods that make you grow taller as for those who are still going through their puberty and seeking to improve height growth.

There are the following kinds of foods that make you grow taller:

  • Organic coconut milk, fresh coconut and virgin coconut oil are a source of good fat that your body needs. Avoid fats that cause obesity and sluggishness to make you slow in your routine activities.
  • Skimmed milk is a good source of calcium that is essential for your bones to grow and become strong. Avoid homogenized milk, which is bad.
  • Take plenty of fresh vegetables like asparagus, mushrooms, spinach, broccoli, lettuce, zucchini, onions and tomatoes. All these are a good source of amino acids that support your immune system and boost metabolism.
  • White of eggs, chicken, tofu and soy-milk are a good source of protein that make your body grow and gain muscle mass.
  • Organic maple syrup and raw honey are the best sweeteners that provide your body the right amount of calories. Avoid aspartame, saccharine and high fructose corn syrup. A limited amount of calories gives you energy to do your routine exercises to grow taller as it does not cause obesity and sluggishness.

Beside the above, other foods that make you grow taller include organic unsweetened coca powder, black or kidney beans, chopped walnuts, pecans, almonds and various other nuts.

You can easily improve height growth by including the above items in your regular diet. All the above foods are available available in the stores and you should keep these handy in your kitchen.

Body Cleansing Diet Tips

Cleansing the body has become a fad means of shedding weight. It also is a means of ridding the body of toxic chemicals that accumulate over time. When done safely, the cleansing process has many health benefits including enhanced energy levels, better immune function and a healthy body as a whole.

To obtain these benefits, here are some tips:

Changing your way of life

You can not at all times manage your environment, but you can manage your diet. Foods with synthetic flavors, colors and preservatives have toxic substances that accumulate in the body over time and can lead to adverse health effects. However, merely changing one's lifestyle will help an individual look and feel their best. To achieve this, it is recommended that you consume organic foods as much as possible, drink ample amounts of water, eat vegetables, fruits, nuts, and whole grains. An individual needs also to cut back the consumption of red meat, canned goods, salt, sugar, saturated fats, nicotine, coffee as well as alcohol.

Juice Fast
Changing your normal diet and adding some juice cleansing for a minimum of three and up to ten days can do a great difference in your overall wellbeing and energy levels. You may start by altering your diet before cleaning, eating more vegetables and fruits to get the body used to this type of food consumption. While cleansing, drink 32-64 ounces of freshly pinched juice from raw vegetables and fresh fruits each day, plus 8 glasses of water to get rid of toxins from the body. Drink also a laxative tea during the night prior to going to bed.

Here are some cleansing juice recipes:

For the kidney: Mix the juices of three celery stalks, a lemon, two tomatoes, two carrots plus water.

For the skin: Combine the extracts of a cucumber, four ounces of alfalfa sprouts, 1/2 bunch of fresh parsley, four twigs of fresh mint plus water.

For body building: Mix the juices of the following ingredients with the use of a blender: six oranges, two bunches of grapes, 1/4 cup honey, eight lemons plus water.

The Master Cleanse

This diet is popular in Hollywood. The Master Cleanse diet is the method of fasting for ten days or two weeks in order to benefit from the nutrients of the mixture of cayenne pepper, lemon juice, maple syrup and water. This body cleanse is well-known for its detoxification benefits and weight loss effects. This diet bought to start the day with a salt water flush. This is done by consuming 32 ounces of warm water combined with 2 teaspoons of organic sea salt.

All through the day, the only food to be consumed is the Master Cleanser mixture, which contains 2 tablespoons of lemon juice, 2 dashes of cayenne pepper, 2 tablespoons of organic maple syrup (Grade B) and 10 ounces of purified water. Finally, end each day through drinking a laxative tea to wash out the toxins from the body.

Real Fast Food

I just made breakfast. It took all of three minutes. I'm still in my jammies and the car has not left the garage. My morning smoothie consist of c cup cranberries, c cup blueberries, 1 banana, c cup of ground flax, one orange, 1 kiwi, and 2 cups filtered water and cost about $ 2.50. I could have gotten dressed, driven to the near drive-thru and paid $ 3.75 for one of their fruit concoctions. But, if you take some time to do a bit of shopping and planning, you can have real "fast food" right in the comfort of your own home. And I know exactly what went into the drink I am enjoying.

Another breakfast fast food is a bowl of oatmeal. Add some peanut butter or a few chopped walnuts. Put in some raisins for a bit of extra fiber. Eat with half a grapefruit and you have an inexpensive healthy meal that requires minimum preparation and cleanup.

My lunches always consist of leftover dinner. I have a food thermos that has a removable divider. I either take out the divider and fill the container with soup or leave it in and choose two items from dinner we ate the night before. Now that's fast. I do not have to stand in line at the take-out window nor do I worry about consuming the abundance of calories usually present in restaurant meals.

Need an afternoon snack for a quick burst of energy? Slice an apple and serve with a couple of teaspoons of peanut or almond butter. Okay, it's not quite as fast as putting $ 2 into a candy machine. But, you'll end up healthy and, therefore, more productive so, in the long run, it's a better choice.

Dinner is the time when it's really tempting to pick something up on the way home because preparation and cleanup take a lot of time and energy and, after working all day, we usually have the least amount of either. I've tried the one-a-month cooking thing and found that I began to dread the full day of cooking that is necessary to make so many meals in one go. However, I do take some time on the weekends to make extra amounts of food for freezing and that does not add much prep time at all. And, because I'm already cooking, the amount of cleanup remains the same.

Fish is quick to cook and recipes usually involve few ingredients so it makes a good and healthy main course. Add a quick salad and some rice pilaf and you have a satisfying dinner that does not take too long. Green beans are easy to throw in the steamer. Add some dill, some lemon juice and olive oil along with a chopped green onion. Remember to make enough of each course for your lunch and you're killing two birds with one stone.

Always keep in mind what some call the French Paradox. While people in France consume a higher amount of saturated fat than their US counterparts, their incidence of heart disease is somewhat lower. This alone is interesting because total consumption of fat is about the same. Many attribute the difference to the meal customs and habits. For one, the French diet is significantly lower in refined sugar. Portions in France are about 75 percent the size of those found on a typical plate in the United States. Variety and quality are valued more than speed and quantity. Meals are eaten in a relaxed atmosphere and not while multitasking, leading to greater satisfaction. And snacking is not common. Leisurely meals finished with a dessert of fruit and cheese is the norm. The French take time to chew and digest.

So, the next time you're pondering that trip to the drive-thru to grab that bag of salt and fat laden fast food, ponder the miniscule amount of time you're really saving as well the adverse consequences to your health and well -being. Learn from the French. Take a bit of time to plan a few meals. Make one good trip to the grocery store and farmer's market. Prepare some quality meals and enjoy them with your family. Chew. Converse. Digest. Enjoy. Stay healthy.